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'Shaders' in computer graphics refers to software programs that are used in 3D computer graphics to determine the final look of an on-screen object. These mini programs, coded in languages specifically designed for shading, help create lighting effects, color variations, textures, shadows, reflections, motion blurs, or even small pieces of dust on the surface of an object.In essence, the role of a shader is to interpret the 3D data and render it in such a way that it looks realistic to the viewer. Shaders are essential in developing the look of backgrounds and characters in video games, animated films, and simulations. Additionally, they are used in the creation of special effects in video post-processing.Shaders can be found in two general types; vertex shaders and pixel (or fragment) shaders. Vertex shaders modify the properties of individual vertices in 3D models, like their position, color, and texture. These are especially useful when you want to deform the shape of a model by moving its vertices around in 3D space. Pixel shaders, on the other hand, calculate the color and other attributes of each individual pixel in the final rendered image. They are usually used to create complex lighting and texture effects.Although these two types of shaders have distinct purposes, they often work together in what's called the graphics pipeline. This is the sequence of steps that a graphics card goes through to render a single frame of animation. First, the vertex shader manipulates the 3D representation of an object. Afterward, the pixel shader refines the raw image and adds detail to it.Writing shaders involves using specific high-level shading languages, similar to other programming languages, yet specifically designed to comfortably handle the types of calculations needed for rendering. Some examples of these languages include GLSL (OpenGL Shading Language), Cg (C for Graphics), and HLSL (High-Level Shading Language for DirectX).In conclusion, shaders are an incredibly crucial aspect of computer graphics and provide the tools necessary to achieve a variety of visual effects. They add depth and realism to graphics rendered in real-time—transforming a simplistic 3D model into a visually intricate, detailed, and interactive scene that enhances user immersion in the virtual world.